The fifth learning, teaching, and training (LTT) activity of the Erasmus+ project “New Generation Schools in The Light of Education 4.0” (no. 2019-1-TR01-KA229-075529_6) has been held in Romania, at the Orsova Subsidiary of Palatul Copiilor Drobeta Turnu Severin.

Preparation of the Romanian LTT activity

The objectives of the Romanian LTT

The 3D modeling and 3D printing have been the central themes of the Romanian LTT activity because the Romanian team was responsible for this field in the project. We tried to integrate the 3D thematic in interdisciplinary workshops where all stages of the product creation were addressed: design, manufacturing, assembly, programming, and testing. The workshops were designed to contribute to the training/development of the following skills of students and teachers participating in the activities:

  • Describing the potential of additive technology.
  • 3D scanning of different objects (using the Creality CR-Scan 01 scanner).
  • 3D modeling objects (with the Creo program).
  • Preparing the 3D model for 3D printing (with Qidi Print and Vertex Repetier programs).
  • Printing 3D objects with filament 3D printers (Qidi 3D X Plus and Vertex K8400).
  • Building (3D design of the case, assembly, programming, and testing) a car traffic light.
  • Building (3D design of wheels and motor brackets, assembly, programming, and testing) a wheeled robot.
  • Building (3D design of solar panel support, assembly, programming, and testing) a solar tracker.
  • Programming a biped robot.
  • Solving problems that arise during the development of a product in the various stages (design, manufacture, assembly, programming, and testing).
  • Dissemination of the project at national and international level during the Robotor Symposium 2022.


The Romanian team member carried out the following activities before the Romanian LTT activity:

LTT5 Agenda

The Romanian LTT activity was carried out according to the agenda ( proposed by Mihai Agape and agreed by the partners.

Sunday, June 5, 2022

 Arrival to Orșova

Day 1 | Monday, June 6

08:50Visit Orșova Subsidiary of Palatul Copiilor Drobeta Turnu Severin
09:00Additive Manufacturing (WS01)
11:003D Scanning (WS02)
14:003D Modeling (WS03)
16:00Hike to St. Anne’s Monastery

Day 2 | Tuesday, June 7

09:003D Printing (WS04)
11:30Trip to Drobeta Turnu Severin
12:00Visit “Iron Gates I” Hydroelectric Power Station Museum
13:30Lunch in Drobeta Turnu Severin
15:00Visit Drobeta Turnu Severin (Iron Gates Region Museum, Severin Medieval Fortress, Water Castle)

Day 3 | Wednesday, June 8

09:00Traffic Light (WS05)
11:00Wheeled Robot Design (WS06)
14:00Wheeled Robot Prototyping (WS07)
16:30Danube Boat Trip

Day 4 | Thursday, June 9

09:00Wheeled Robot Coding (WS08)
11:00Line Follower Competition (WS09)
14:00Prepare presentations for Robotics Symposium Robotor 2022
17:00Robotics Symposium Robotor 2022
19:00Cultural Evening

Day 5 | Friday, June 10

09:00Solar Tracker Design (WS10)
11:00Solar Tracker Testing (WS11)
14:00Biped Race (WS12)
16:00Certificates Awarding Ceremony

Saturday, June 11

 Participants Departure

Accommodation and meals

All the partners stayed during the Romanian LTT in the same hotel, Dunavis (, which has been chosen because was the only one in Orsova that had enough rooms for all our guests.

All the guests have chosen the place where they wanted to eat with few exceptions (e.g., first day lunch, lunch in Drobeta Turnu Severin, and the cultural night dinner).

Exhibition of products created during the project

Maria-Genoveva Agape arranged an exposition with some products created by Romanian students during the NGSLE4 project: 3D printed trinkets, 3D printed jewelry, and LED based toys (!AsPIAk6ss4nZge1wSHpiRv1zIGmaKw?e=se9cs9).

The venue for the LTT activities

The learning activities took place in the festivity’s hall of the Orșova Subsidiary, which corresponds in terms of space. Unfortunately, the hall does not have conditioning air, and sometimes it was too warm for students to work. That we preferred to have the Romanian LTT activity in one of the months September, October, April, or May, but finally it was not possible.

Eight workshop areas were organized for teams of 5-6 people each.

We had a video projector and a flipchart. Unfortunately, the video projector was not useful in some moments of the day when the light was very powerful. In those moments we used Zoom videoconference to share visual information.


We prepared 16 laptops (two for each working group) with necessary software for:

  • 3D modeling, slicing, and scanning.
  • Programming microcontrollers (Arduino, and Mu).

We have just three laptops in Orșova Subsidiary, of which two bought from the PMI grant of NGSLE4 project. For Romanian LTT activity, eight laptops were provided by the Romanian students participating in the LTT5 activity, and five laptops were provided by Mihai Agape.

Workshop materials

We prepared the necessary materials for the workshops. In most of the workshops the students worked in groups, and we prepared one kit for each group, of next type:

There was a workshop where the students learned how to assemble and solder an electronic circuit (LED Flasher) and we prepared a kit for each participant.

The participants in the LTT activity in Romania

This project meeting was attended by representatives of all partners according to the following table:

Kabazlı Şehit İsmail Yavuz Ortaokulu[1]Türkiye43
Tallinna Kristiine GümnaasiumEstonia42
Osnovna Šola BregSlovenia92
Agrupamento de Escolas de Portela e Moscavide[2]Portugal52
Palatul Copiilor Drobeta Turnu SeverinRomania84

Workshops studying groups

The students and teachers participating in the workshops were divided into eight international groups made up of both students and teachers.

Group #1Group #2
Student girl from Türkiye
Student girl from Slovenia
Student boy from Romania
Student boy from Portugal
Male teacher from Estonia
Student girl from Türkiye
Student girl from Romania
Student boy from Slovenia
Student boy from Portugal
Female teacher from Estonia
Group #3Group #4
Student girl from Slovenia
Student boy from Türkiye
Student boy from Romania
Student boy from Portugal
Female teacher from Portugal
Student girl from Portugal
Student boy from Türkiye
Student boy from Slovenia
Student boy from Romania
Male teacher from Slovenia
Group #5Group #6
Student girl from Romania
Student girl from Portugal
Student boy from Slovenia
Student boy from Estonia
Male teacher from Türkiye
Female teacher from Slovenia
Student girl from Romania
Student girl from Portugal
Student boy from Slovenia
Student boy from Estonia
Male teacher from Türkiye
Male teacher from Romania
Group #7Group #8
Student girl from Slovenia
Student boy from Slovenia
Student boy from Romania
Student boy from Estonia
Male teacher from Portugal
Female teacher from Romania
Student girl from Romania
Student boy from Slovenia
Student boy from Estonia
Male teacher from Türkiye
Male teacher from Portugal
Female teacher from Romania

The activities carried out during the Romanian LTT activity

Next, I present in chronological order the activities carried out during the working meeting.

Orsova Subsidiary Visit

We started the first day activities by presenting the rooms in which the activities of the four circles (Electronics, Theatre/Magazine Theater, Painting and Karting) are carried out at the Orșova Subsidiary.

Romanian LTT Activity Overview

After the very short visit of Orsova Subsidiary, in the beginning of the fifth LTT, Mihai Agape:

  • Shared the folders (!AsPIAk6ss4nZgfMTcss8YHZUkqHH-A?e=osSfhM) to the participants.
  • Informed the participants about some aspects related to the activity (signing papers/documents) and related to the city of Orșova (for example, stray dogs, central heating, places to swim, places to eat).
  • Shared the link to the WhatsApp group for the LTT5.
  • Presented the costs for different cultural activities.
  • Overviewed the agenda of the LTT5 activity.
  • Explained how to connect to the Internet.

Because the Internet connection is very important for LTT activities, and the Internet connection in Orsova Subsidiary is not good enough, the Internet connections have been assured for each guest, via hotspot, by the Romanian student in his study group.

Additive Manufacturing WS

During the first workshop, related to the additive manufacturing, the participants (students and teachers) were challenged to build a cardboard 3D model of the King Decebal bust. The purpose of the activity was to allow the participants to understand the principle of additive manufacturing used by FDM 3D printers.

The starting point of the workshop was the King Decebal bust 3D model ( created by Mihai Agape, starting from a drone scanned 3D model of the King Decebal rock sculpture (

The 2D sketches used during the workshop were obtained by applying some Python scripts, written by Mihai Agape, to the 2D slices of the 3D model.

As can be seen in the next pictures, the paper busts made by the students were very close to the 3D printed model. The height difference came from the fact that the cardboard thickness was slightly lower than the step used for slicing the 3D model. (2 mm).

In the end of the workshop, the students have been challenged to compute, theoretically or practically, the volume of the material used to fabricate a cone by using additive and subtractive manufacturing. All of the teams succeeded to find the necessary information on the Internet and to use for solving the challenge. They understood that the additive manufacturing produces much less waste compared to subtractive manufacturing.

3D Scanning Workshop

During the second workshop of the first LTT day, the students learned how to obtain the 3D model of an object by using a 3D scanner. Unfortunately, we had just one Creality CR-Scan 01 3D scanner. The scanner was bought by Mihai Agape, because the high price makes it ineligible to be bought from the project grant.

During this workshop each group had the opportunity to teach another group: Mihai Agape instructed the first group how to use the 3D scanner; after that, each group had to teach the next group how to use the 3D scanner.

Each group has been chosen a different object to scan. The students achieved good scanning results for some objects they scanned (e.g., a cup, a mouse), and not so good for others (e.g., a transparent bottle of water). They discovered that the scanner doesn’t work very well for transparent objects.

3D Modeling Workshop

In the last workshop of the LTT activity’s first day, the students learned how to design 3D models using the 3D modeling software Creo. We want to thank to PTC company ( which provided us the free educational licenses of Creo.

During the workshop, the students learned how to use the basic features of Creo to create simple 3D models. In the beginning it was a little bit difficult for the students to use the Creo software. After some exercise the students learned how to use the Extrude and Revolve features to create the 3D models. Finally, they told that the Creo software is very easy to use.

In the end of the workshop, the participants learned how to create STL file for the model, which will be used for 3D printing.

Hike to St. Anne’s Monastery

In the end of the first LTT day the participants hiked to the Saint Anne’s Monastery.

The hiking was a good way to relax after the three workshops of the first day. Our guests could admire the Danube River and the Orsova city panorama, from the top of the hill.

3D Printing Workshop

We started the second day of the LTT activity with a workshop related to 3D printing.

In the beginning of the workshop students applied what they learned in the previous workshop and created a plate with their names, using Creo. After that they generated the STL files which have been prepared for 3D printing. The students used two different slicers to generate the G-code necessary for the 3D printers we used during the LTT activity: Qidi 3D X Plus and Vertex K8400.

In the beginning of the next day, each student received a 3D printed coin with his name.

The Vertex K8400 has been a prize won by Mihai Agape’s students for their work during the 3D POwER eTwinning project. Qidi 3D X Plus was bought by Mihai Agape because we needed a better 3D printer for the NGSLE4 project, and the higher cost of such 3D printer made it ineligible to be bought from the project grant.

Trip to Drobeta Turnu Severin

After the 3D printing workshop, we started our trip to Drobeta Turnu Severin.

Iron Gates I

The first stop was the “Iron Gates I” Hydroelectric Power Station Museum ( The students and teachers had the opportunity to visit the biggest hydroelectric power station in Europe.


We arrived in Drobeta Turnu Severin just in time for the lunch.

Iron Gates Region Museum

After lunch we visited some touristic attractions in Drobeta Turnu Severin. First was the Iron Gates Region Museum (

Severin Medieval Fortress

After a short walk we visited the Severin Medieval Fortress ( Most of the participants were already tired and looking for a place to sit down.

Water Castle

Last stop in Drobeta Turnu Severin was the Water Castle ( which offers a great 360⁰ panoramic view of the city.

The LED Flasher Workshop

We started the third day with a different workshop than the one in the agenda. This has been agreed by all participants and it was necessary because the students had to have skills in the components’ soldering for the next workshops.


The students learned to assemble and to solder an electronic circuit during the LED Flasher (Firefly) workshop. This was an individual workshop, each participant receiving a kit which they kept as a gift from the organizers.

During the workshop the participants also learned how to use a multimeter to measure the electrical resistance. They used the multimeter to identify different types of resistors. Of course, some of the students preferred to use an online application for calculating the resistance, based on the colors’ code.

Most of the flashers worked well after of some eventually circuit rework. During the circuits debugging, the students learned how to identify the short-circuits with the multimeter.

Thanks to Miele company ( for the electronics tool kits, they sponsored us, and we used during the workshop. The LED Flashers / Firefly kits have been made by Mihai Agape for the Conexiuni 2019 electronic contest.

Traffic Light Workshop

The traffic light workshop involved a simple project which offered the chance to exercise all the product development stages (designing 3D parts, prototyping, programming, and testing). The traffic light kit has been designed by Mihai Agape. Before the workshop, the 3D parts have been printed, and the PCBs have been assembled by the Romanian students.

In the beginning of the traffic light workshop the participants had to solder a 4 pins row to the ends of the four wires connected to the electronic circuit. This task was a little bit easier after the previous workshop, where the students learned how to solder.

Next, the participants learned how to use a breadboard to make the connections between the traffic light and an Arduino board which controls it.

After breadboarding, the participants learned how to control the traffic light with an Arduino Nano board. We started with an easier program, for LED blinking.

Based on this program the participants succeeded to write a program for the traffic light, based on a timing decided with the teacher.

Of course, in some cases the participants had to debug their programs, but finally all of them worked well.

In the end of the workshop, the participants have been challenged to propose alternative designs for the 3D parts of the traffic lights.

Danube Boat Trip

In the afternoon of the third day of the Romanian LTT activity, the participants enjoyed the two-hour long Danube boat trip, as you can see in the next pictures.

The participants had the opportunity to admire the rock sculpture of King Decebal, the biggest rock sculpture in Europe.

Wheeled Robot Workshop

The wheeled robot workshop was the most complex one. The workshop was based on the uBot (, a micro:bit based robot, designed by Mihai Agape during the NGSLE4 project.

Because it was impossible to design all the 3D parts of the robot in the allocated time, the participants have been challenged to model a wheel and a motor bracket using Creo.

Of course, it was not possible to 3D print and mold the necessary tires during the workshop. That’s why Mihai Agape and his students prepared some 3D printed wheels with polyurethan tires, molded a week before the workshop. The participants had to demold the wheels and prepare them to be used in their robot. The students appreciated the high friction of the sticky wheels. We offered 2 sticky wheels to each student.

Next, students learned how to assemble the parts of the uBot. They assembled first the motors on the chassis, using motor brackets, screws, and nuts.

Next they assembled the sensors, motor driver, the micro:bit extension board, the micro:bit board, and the two boards with the 3 V and 5 V regulators.

Unfortunately, the students couldn’t obtain a fully functional robot because they had to solder some wires between motor driver and motors, and it seems that the soldering skills they acquired in the previous workshops were not enough to succeed.

One of the teams made some mistakes during the mechanical assembly. They changed the mounting direction of the screws and obtained a robot…suspended on the screws.

Instead of programming uBot to follow a line, as we intended, we simulated a line follower in Scratch. Even if it was not so spectacular as a real line follower, the students enjoyed the Scratch programming session.

Robotics Symposium Robotor 2022

The Robotics Symposium Robotor 2022 ( has been organized during the Romanian LTT activity because it offered a great opportunity to all partners to share their work in the NGSLE4 project at international level.

The Symposium proceeded according to the following agenda:

TimeEvent / PresentationResponsible / Author(s)
16:30RegistrationParticipants in Robotor 2022 Symposium
17:00Symposium OpeningMihai AGAPE, Palatul Copiilor Drobeta Turnu Severin, Romania
17:103D modeling and 3D printing in one Croatian schoolBosiljko ĐEREK, Primary school Središće, Zagreb, Croatia
17:20ARSTEAMappHatice KIRMACI, Korkmaz Yigit Anatolian High School, Türkiye
17:30Maze traversal algorithmsEugeniu CABAC, USARB, Republic of Moldova
17:40Programming and Robotics in SchoolJorge SANTOS, Direção Geral de Educação; Jaime REI, Agrupamento de Escolas de São Gonçalo, Paulo TORCATO, Agrupamento de Escolas de Portela e Moscavide, Portugal
17:50micro:bit in classroomBozena UKIC, Elementary school Sredisce, Croatia
18:00STEAM club as a support to STEM education in high schoolsDalibor TODOROVIC, Gimnazija “9.maj” Nis, Serbia
18:10Robotic TournamentPiotr TOKARZ, Małgorzata BIELA, Jadwiga BURYN, Maciej WYCISK, Technical School Complex in Rybnik, Poland
18:20VEX robotics on the Elementary school BregOliver BUČEK, Elementary School Breg, Slovenia
18:30Contributions to the implementation of the NGSLE4 projectMihai AGAPE, Maria-Genoveva AGAPE, Palatul Copiilor Drobeta Turnu Severin, Romania

The participants from Moldova, Poland, Croatia, Serbia, and Türkiye delivered their presentations online, via Zoom videoconference.

In the end of the Symposium, Georgeta Corlan, music teacher at Baia de Aramă Subsidiary of Palatul Copiilor Drobeta Turnu Severin created a magical artistic moment, together with the members of the Bordeiașul group, which she leads.

The participants who joined in Symposium face-to-face had the opportunity to see some of the products developed by the Romanian team within the Erasmus+ NGSLE4 project.

Cultural Evening

After the Robotor 2022 Symposium we gathered for the cultural evening which has been organized at the hotel where our guests stayed.

We enjoyed the traditional products from each country.

The Slovenian students played few very nice songs. Later, we played songs specific to each partner country.

Of course, we could not miss the opportunity to dance specific dances to each partner country.


Solar Tracker Workshop

The solar tracker ( is one of the products of NGSLE4 project, designed by Mihai Agape, and built with his students. The solar tracker can be seen in action at

The participants assembled partially the solar tracker. It was not enough time to assembly the LDR sensors.

The student learned how to control the two servos of the solar tracker using Arduino, without using the feedback from the LDR sensors.

During the solar tracker workshop the students have been challenged to:

  • Find how much more solar energy is harvested by a solar panel during the summer with a solar tracker.
  • Decide if the solar panels used in the solar tracker could be used for the solar robot contest organized in the Robotor Trophy (
  • Find disadvantages of the solar tracker design and to propose new solutions.

Biped Dance Workshop

During the last workshop of the LTT activity, the students worked with Otto, a robotic biped. We used a version of Otto design, named Lotto (an acronym for Light Otto version), which has been created by Mihai Agape to decrease the quantity of filament required for parts 3D printing. The STL files for 3D printing Lotto are published on Thingiverse, at The Otto robot kits were made by Mihai Agape as part of the NGSLE4 project and have been assembled by his students before the workshop.

We intended to have a race between Otto robots, but the students preferred a funnier approach. So, they were challenged to program Otto to dance.

The students programmed Otto in Arduino using the Otto libraries. The necessary resources can be found on Otto Academy website (

Certificates Awarding Ceremony

In the end of the last day of the Romanian LTT activity the participants received their certificates.

Romanian team offered to each participant a 3D printed bust of the King Decebal. Of course, the busts have been printed using our 3D printers.


The participants wrote their impressions about Romanian LTT activity, and it seems that they enjoyed it.

Mihai Agape created a feedback Google form which has been sent to the partners one week after the event ending. Unfortunately, just nine students and six teachers—i.e., less than the half of the participants in the Romanian LTT activity—filled in the feedback form. From some countries there were not respondents.

The feedback form respondents appreciated quite well the workshops and the cultural activities organized during the Romanian LTT activity.

The workshops’ feedback shows that the effort put into workshops’ preparation is not reflected, in some cases, in a high level of participants’ satisfaction. A possible explanation is the fact that Mihai Agape designed the workshops for mixed work groups made up of students and teachers. Thus, teachers could have helped students when they had difficulties. Some of the teachers said that they want to give their students the chance to manage on their own, without their help.

It can be seen clear that the Danube boat trip was the most appreciated cultural activity.

Even if the Robotics Symposium Robotor 2022 was not appreciated by the respondents, I still consider that is one of the most valuable activities we organized during the Romanian LTT activity. The Robotor 2022 Symposium offered to all partners the opportunity to disseminate—at international level and to the project’s other partners—their activity during the three years of the NGSLE4 Erasmus+ project. A possible explanation for the Symposium’s bad evaluation could be generated by the partners’ coordinators attitude towards participation in the Symposium: two partners did not want to present at all; one of the partners presented what they propose to do in a new Erasmus+ project, but not what they have done in NGSLE4 project.

Next there are the comments added by respondents.

  • “It was great.”
  • “Everything was fine. Thank you!”
  • “It was a fun experience. The workshops were interesting, and the activities were fun.”
  • “People were extremely hospitable. I missed a teachers’ meeting where we could have discussed the project and experiences.”
  • “Good work!”
  • “It was greaaaat!”
  • “I was having a lot of fun.”
  • “It was a lot of fun, and I learned a lot of new things.”
  • “It was very interesting, in conclusion.”
  • “I want to congratulate the coordinators and fact that al the activities took place in a very good working climate!”
  • “It was a very good activity for me. I really liked the workshops and the thing that I communicated with all the partners!”
  • “It was a pleasure to participate and thank you for welcoming us!”


The Romanian LTT activity has been disseminated on different channels of the project, of the host institution and of the teachers and students.


Mihai Agape posted more than 25 posts, related to the Romanian LTT activity, on the Facebook page ( of the NGSLE4 project. The posts were shared by other Facebook pages as:

11 Plus TV Interview

Mihai Agape gave an interview for 11 Plus TV ( related to the LTT activity in Orșova in general, and particularly related to the Symposium Robotor 2022.

LTT5 Photo Album and Video

Mihai Agape created a photo album of the Romanian LTT activity, which have been posted on the Romanian project website, at Mihai Agape created a short movie about the Romanian LTT activity, which have been posted on different Youtube channels (


I think that the Romanian LTT activity was a successful one. The participants worked hard to accomplish the objectives proposed and, in the end, they were happy with what they learned.

Of course, future similar events could be improved. I think the most important improving source would be to have the necessary information related to the participants background during the workshops design phase.

[1] The Turkish guests arrived on Monday evening and therefore couldn’t participate in the LTT first day activities.

[2] Nine people should have participated from Portugal instead of just seven. Unfortunately, a student and a teacher tested positive for the COVID-19 virus before leaving for Romania and could not make the trip nor could they be replaced.